History of Callaway County, Missouri was published in 1884 by the St. Louis National Historical Company, Chapter 14 pages 372 – 397. Transcribed by Kris Breid.
In January, 1858, there was a meeting of the soldiers of the War of 1812 held in Fulton, embracing the following veterans of that war. Of course no soldiers entered the War of 1812 from Callaway county, for at that time the county had not been organized. The names of the soldiers found below were men who emigrated to the county from other States:–
Stephen Brown, 80 years old; John Holt, 77; John Duncanson, 72; Stephen Maddox, 72; William Martin, 71; William Smith, 70; G. T. Johnson, 68; William Jones, 68; Samuel Miller, 68; Jesse Bull, 70; Jerre Muir, 67; S. Sheley, 67; Job Curtis, 67; R. Reily, 67; Charles Maddox, 67; W. W. Snell, 66; J. J. Adcock, 66; Robert Read, 66; J. A. Robertson, 66; George Herring, 66; John Bennett, 65; Asa Williams, 65; J. B. Finley, 65; Samuel Darby, 65; J. C. Anderson, 65; David Dunlap, 64; James McNite, 64; John Burdett, 64; James Davis, 64; G. B. Hopkins, 63; N. Glasgow, 63; John Boyd, 61; John West, 61.
Below we give a list of the veterans who were living in the county in 1879:–
Joel Palmer, 83 years old; Thomas S. Suggett, age unknown; Joel J. Adcock, 85; Pat Ewing, 87; Gideon Gaines, 90; Barba Collins, 86; G. B. Hopkins, 85; James M. Griffin, 81; Wiley Vinson, 85; Alfred Barnes, 89; William Wallace, age unknown; J. R. Davis, 84; W. B. Garrett, 79; Stephen Hyten, age unknown.
A few more years will close the scroll, and the last survivor of the War of 1812 will have joined the patriots of ’76 on the other side of the river.
In the spring of 1832, Captain Callaway was called on by the Governor of Missouri to furnish two companies of mounted riflemen, for the purpose of protecting the northern boundary of the State, during the existence of the Black Hawk War. The county at that time, contained a population of something over four thousand whites. Fulton was a small village of seven years’ growth, built up mostly of log cabins, but notwithstanding the sparse population, the citizens turned out with great alacrity, and promptly filled up the two companies required.
The Black Hawk War was the most important event that marked the two decades. After the close of the war, in 1815, a misunderstanding in relation to the stipulation of a treaty entered into by the contracting chiefs of the Sac and Fox Indians, and the commissioners on the part of the government, culminated in open hostility. The most objectionable part of this treaty to the Indians was the transfer to the United States government of the lands above the mouth of Rock River, in Illinois. These green valleys and flowering plains were rendered sacred to them by the legends of the past. They were loth [sic] to leave their villages and the burial places of their fathers. The chiefs increased the dissatisfaction of their people by denying the validity of the treaty. A very intelligent Indian trader, residing at the Indian trading post at Keokuk, informed Captain Jameson, who commanded one of the companies from Callaway County, that Black Hawk had frequently denied to him ever having given his consent to the sale that the whites had written, and the clause or stipulation in reference to the transfer of their lands was an interpolation on the part of the commissioners. This was, however, a ruse on the part of the wily chieftain, to unite his people more closely in the defence [sic] of their homes.
When the war became imminent, the settlers along the northern boundary, near the Des Moines river, owing to their proximity to the Indians, were apprehensive that hostile and marauding bands would be turned loose on their defenceless [sic] settlements to perpetrate their peculiar and savage mode of warfare. At an informal meeting of these pioneers, a request was forwarded to Governor Miller to send troops to protect them from the anticipated invasion. The Governor cheerfully complying with their request, ordered Captain Mace, of the volunteer rangers, to repair to the frontier, and remain until an organization of the militia could be effected. In the meantime, a requisition was made on General William Gentry to raise six companies of mounted riflemen from the counties of Boone, Callaway, Pike and Ralls—two companies each from the first two, and one from each of the others. Sometime during the month of June, in 1832, the citizens of Callaway met at Fulton for the purpose of responding to General Gentry’s requisition; the officers elected at that meeting were Captain John Jameson and Patrick Ewing.
John S. Henderson, an old pioneer, who now resides in Callaway county, and who was a soldier in the Black Hawk War from Callaway county, furnishes the following interesting sketch in reference thereto:–
“I was a member of Captain Jameson’s company, the subordinate officers of which were Robert Reed, first lieutenant; and John Gibson, second lieutenant; Hawley Wilkerson, orderly sergeant. Major Reed had served with distinction in the War of 1812-15, and participated in the battle of New Orleans. Lieutenant Gibson was an early pioneer in North-central Missouri, and had seen service in nearly all the ranging parties in the first settlement of Montgomery and adjoining counties. The other counties embraced in General Gentry’s order acted promptly, and furnished their full quota, the whole forming a battalion commanded by Major Conyers, of Boone county, a very popular and efficient officer. The entire force of 450 men was formed into three divisions, of two companies each, to serve alternately, for the term of thirty days, during the continuance of hostilities. The first division was composed of the two companies from Pike and Ralls, commanded respectively by Captains A. B. Chambers and Matson. The second of one company from Callaway, Captain Jameson, and one from Boone, Captain David M. Hickman. The third, of the two companies from Callaway and Boone, commanded by Captains Ewing and Kirtley. About the first of June the first division was ordered to relieve Captain Mace, who had occupied the post since early in April. Situated about twelve mile above the mouth of the Des Moines and six from Keokuk, Captain Mace had built a very substantial fort, which, in honor of his adopted county, he named Fort Pike. The fort was eligibly situated immediately on the bank of the Des Moines river, protected on the north by the river, while around on either side was an open space of sufficient extent to prevent an ambuscade within rifle shot. An area of one-half acre was enclosed with strong oak pickets, with a log block house in the northeast angle. This was used as a depot for commissary stores.
On the evening of the 1st of July, 1832, Captain Jameson’s company left Fulton, en route for Fort Pike. We encamped the first night at Miller’s Creek, moving on to Columbia the next day, where we arrived about twelve o’clock. Here we remained until having been joined by Captain D. M. Hickman’s company, and mustered into service by the late General Richard Gentry. The expedition left for the frontier, via Palmyra, which at that early period in the history of the State, we found a prosperous village of some 400 inhabitants. La Grange, situated a short distance above Palmyra, had recently been laid off in lots. When we were there only one cabin gave evidence of the town, and that was in an unfinished condition. Six miles above we passed though Canton; a few log cabins formed the nucleus of the present flourishing town. On July 10th we arrived at the fort. On the following morning the companies of Captains Chambers and Matson took up their line of march for home. No incident worthy of note occurred on the trip.
As an episode in these reminiscences I will mention a fact in regard to Captain Jameson. When he was chosen to command the company, he was one of the Democratic candidates for the Legislature. The biennial election was to be held in August, and in accepting the position of a soldier, he not only risked his own chance of being made a legislator, but also seriously jeopardized the election of the other candidate associated with him on the ticket. The two political parties were pretty equally divided, the preponderancy being somewhat in favor of the Democrats. Captain Jameson’s company was composed in great part of his political friends. Their term of service expired on the 10th of August, and as the election was to be held on the first Monday of that month, which on this occasion was on the second day, they would necessarily be absent from the polls. The loss of this vote would be sufficient to turn the political scale in favor of the Whigs. It was not anticipated that Captain Ewing’s company would be called on to proceed to the frontier until after the election as they would have ample time after that event to reach the fort, on or before the 10th; but Governor Miller, in his political wisdom, came to the rescue of the party. Captain Ewing’s company was nearly all Whigs, and just on the eve of the election they were ordered to march to the frontier, leaving the political parties about on their original footing as to their comparative strength. The Whig candidates up to this time had been confident of success, but were decidedly chop-fallen. They vented their spleen upon the Governor in no measured terms, accusing him in this premature order of acting in collusion with some of the leading Democrats. If this was the case, however, their names never came to light, the Governor being made the scape-goat to bear the sins of others, probably equally guilty. The result was the election of the Democratic candidates, Captain John Jameson and Judge Peter G. Glover, by a small majority.
At the following session of the Legislature Captain Jameson was elected speaker of the House of Representatives. As the war came on in the midst of the political canvass, and as Captain Jameson was an able and popular debator, [sic] his political friends did not look very favorably on the course he saw proper to take, in accepting the command of the company. It will be recollected that the campaign of 1832 was one of great excitement and bitterness. General Jackson’s Presidential term was drawing to a close, and both parties were busy in marshalling their forces for the approaching election. The antagonism engendered by the Federal contest was accompanied with great personal bitterness, which was fully infused into the local election.
In defending the frontier settlements Major Conyers kept a scouting party constantly on the alert, leaving a force only sufficient to garrison the fort. This plan was also popular with the company, as it relieved them of the dull, monotonous routine of camp life. These random trips extended some twenty or thirty miles from the fort, along the tributary streams of the Mississippi and Des Moines rivers, in the western part of Clark county, and in the northern parts of the present limits of Scotland. The western part of Clark and all of what is now Scotland county was at that time unsettled. It had long been a favorite hunting-ground [sic] of the Sac and Fox Indians. From this cause game was comparatively scarce; deer and some elk were found. The buffalo had crossed the Des Moines, but were quite plentiful in the western part of Iowa.
The honey-bee was found in all this unsettled part of the State–like Palestine, it was a land flowing with honey–it was not necessary to resort to the method adopted by the bee-hunters, that of coursing them from bait, or from their watering places, to obtain a supply of their rich stores. All that was needed to make an expert hunter was to find the trees suitable for bees to lodge in. The Indians, although fond of honey, did not put themselves to much trouble to secure it. The bee-moth was not found at that time west of the Missouri river. The prairies afforded a profusion of flowers, and along the water courses were the linden, maple, and other honey-producing trees, making this a paradise for bees.
Having been delayed by unfavorable weather, in one of our scouting expeditions, our stock of provisions was exhausted, and we retraced our steps in the direction of the fort. Very opportunely we came to a settler’s ranch. It was late in the afternoon, and at the suggestion of the captain–that the place was suitable as a camping ground–we quickly dismounted and turned our horses out to graze. A cabin and a potato patch were the only evidence that a white man had occupied the place, the owner and his family having removed to a more secure locality. We lost but little time in procuring potatoes enough to make a substantial if not a sumptuous repast. If the officers or men had any conscientious scruples in relation to the use of another man’s property, a twelve hours’ fast acted as a quietus for the time being. The owner of the property bore the cognomen of Rutherford. He had moved here, twenty miles from the outskirts of civilization, in the previous spring. His cabin was a rude ten by twelve log hut, without floor or door. A bedstead had been made by driving forks in the ground in one corner of the building, on which poles were placed lengthwise and transversely; two three-legged stools, a frying-pan and a small table made of puncheons, completed the inventory of the furniture.
In short, —
‘The domicil [sic] was rife,
With specimens of frontier life.’
Like Alexander Selkirk, he was ‘monarch of all he surveyed,’ but when rumors of war were heard upon the border, unlike him, ‘rather than dwell in the midst of alarms’, he concluded to reign in another place; for the better protection of his scalp, he went to the vicinity of the fort. Shortly after our return, Rutherford put in an appearance and was clamorous for pay for the depredations on his potato patch. He made a very earnest, if not logical, appeal to the officers in his own behalf, in which he recounted the hardships of making a settlement in the wilderness, and his dependence of his potatoes for bread and his rifle for meat. Major Conyers, although willing to repay him fully for the loss he had sustained, could not forgo the pleasure the opportunity presented to have a little quiet amusement at the settler’s expense. A group of men had collected at headquarters, all equally anxious for something to turn up. It is said–
‘A little nonsense now and then
Is relished by the wisest men.’
Major Conyers, in response to the pioneer, reminded him that he was there for the protection of his person and property, and as a consideration for these services, the claimant ought willingly to contribute something to the comfort and substantiation of the army, and particularly in an emergency like that which had overtaken us at his potato patch; but he pioneer was unable to comprehend the force and application of this terse reasoning. The argument did not weigh a feather in his estimation. He planted himself squarely on his reserved rights, as he understood them, and was willing to ‘fight it out on that line.’ ‘Let any man, or set of men,’ said he, ‘interfere with my inborn rights, or my plantation (of the latter he held fee simple of a squatter), and my rifle will settle the dispute.’ Major Conyers was not disposed further to excite his belligerent propensities, and frankly informed that he would be fully remunerated for his potatoes. * * *
Our term of service expired on the frontier, on the 10th of August, and being promptly relieved by Captains Ewing and Kirtley, we returned to our respective homes in Callaway and Boone counties. Captain Jameson returned as he started, with the confidence and respect of the entire command, and in his social and official intercourse with his company he well exemplified, Suaviter in modo, forttter in re. To the younger portion of this command—there being several under twenty-one years of age—he was kind, constant and assiduous in his intentions, giving them the necessary instruction, and affording them the protection and inexperience required. Captain Hickman was also deservedly popular. Here, as at home, he was beloved and respected for the many noble traits which adorned his character.
Before the expiration of the term of Captains Ewing and Kirtley, the war had closed, Fort Pike was abandoned and the town of St. Francisville was laid off, and now occupies the site of the old fort. At the beginning of the war, Black Hawk, with a part of the Sac and Fox Indians, resided at the mouth of the Rock river, in Illinois; the larger part, however, had their permanent homes on the Iowa river. These two tribes speak the same language and are perfectly consolidated by marriage and other sites. They formerly owned the northern part of Illinois and the northwestern part of Missouri, above the lands of the Missouri Indians. From the time they were first seen by the early French settlers, on the Mississippi, they were the steady and sincere friends of the whites; this friendship was first interrupted in 1832.
The Sac and Fox Indians numbered at the beginning of the war 12,400 souls; they were removed from their late reservation in Kansas, and are now living west of the Creeks and north of the Seminoles; a small band of something more than 300 still remain in Iowa. They are fast dwindling to their graves; the tide of civilization has drifted them to the confines of the great prairie wilderness, which is destined to be their home; the music of its rushing winds will be their requiem. I saw Black Hawk shortly after the war; he was en route for the middle and eastern States, traveling under the protection and at the expense of the government. He was apparently about forty-five years of age, being in the prime of original manhood; his features were of the strongly marked Indian type; he manifested that marked trait in the Indian character—a stoical indifference to surrounding circumstances. He was accompanied by his son, a good-looking Indian of about twenty years of age. Shortly after his return to his tribe his heath failed, and after lingering dejected and broken in spirit , he was gathered to his fathers—dying October 3, 1838.
List of Captin Jameson’s Company
First mess.—Thomas Reynolds+, Benjamin F. Sitton+, Captain J. Jameson*, Thomas Jameson, John Sitton, John T. Smart*.
Second mess.—James M. Dunlap*, L. W. Musick+, Hawley Wilkinson*, William Thompson+, Jesse B. Thompson+, James Thompson+.
Third mess.—Samuel McKinney*, Charles McKinney*, Franklin Branham*, Joseph G. Kelso*, S. G. Boulware*, Jos. Richards*.
Fourth mess.—Thomas Austin*, Absalom Austin*, Aaron B. Anderson*, Charles McIntyre, N. G. Bradley+, Archibald Paseton+.
Fifth mess.—Isaiah W. Craighead*, William Jones, John Gibson*, Robert C. Baker*, Milton S. Devore*, George W. Harris, Jr.*
Sixth mess.—M. V. Harrison*, James M. Suggett*, Russell Phillips+, Lewis B. Hawkins+, George W. Harris+, David P. Smart*.
Seventh mess.—Joseph Adair*, James Baskett*, William O. Thompson+, Cyrus Sharp*, James E. Turley, John White*.
Eighth mess.—James Willingham+, Henry Heriford+, first lieutenant R. Reed*, John Davis*, William H. Clasby*, Bayless Kilgore+.
Ninth mess.—John Chapman*, Mason S. Thatcher*, Phillip Blattenberg*, John S. Henderson, Samuel Toler*, Joshua M. Duncan.
Tenth mess.—John Heriford*, William O. Turley*, William Hynes*, Edward Ayres*, Elisha Archer+, Joseph Saller*.
Eleventh mess.—Alexander R. Letcher*, Peter W. Fort+, Jordan Underwood*, Hamilton Dunham+, Jarret Dunaway+, John Letcher+.
Twelfth mess.—M. P. Goodrich+, Thomas H. B. Sitton+, Britton Matthews+, Andrew Alexander*, Benjamin Shepherd*, William H. Dawson*.
*Dead. +Removed from the county.
[NOTE—We made every effort to obtain the names of Captain Patrick Ewing’s company, but failed.]
About the middle of May, 1846, Governor Edwards, of Missouri, called for volunteers to join the expedition to Santa Fe, and take part in the war with Mexico. These troops were to rendezvous at Fort Leavenworth. By the 5th of June the companies began to arrive, and were mustered and lettered in the order of their arrival. The first regiment of Missouri mounted volunteers consisted of eight companies: A, 114 men, from Jackson county, commanded by Captain Waldo; B, 112 men, from Lafayette county, Captain Walton; C, 113 men, from Clay county, Captain Moss; D, 94 men, from Saline county, Captain Reid; E, 117 men, from Franklin county, Captain Stephenson; F, 100 men, from Cole county, Captain Parsons; G, 100 men, from Howard county, Captain Jackson; H, 104 men, from Callaway county, Captain Rodgers. The entire regiment numbered 856 men.
The election of officers on the 18th of June, resulted in the election of Alexander W. Doniphan for colonel, C. F. Ruff, lieutenant-colonel, and William Gilpin, major. All the officers had volunteered as privates, but Colonel Doniphan was already noted as a distinguished lawyer, and had been a conspicuous member of the Legislature.
The entire expedition under the command of General Stephen W. Kearney, of the regular army, consisted of 1,658 men and sixteen pieces of ordnance.
The main body of this force commenced its march across the plains towards New Mexico, on the 16th of June. The whole distance was almost an unbroken wild, an dthe march was beset with difficulties, hardly conceivable to those who have not experienced them; but this army was composed of strong and brave men, full of enthusiasm, and possessed of a spirit not to be disheartened by obstacles.
When the army approached Santa Fe the enemy fled, and on August 18, 1846, after a march of 900 miles, the city was occupied without the loss of a single man. In a short time the whole surrounding territory quietly submitted to the authority of the United States. From Santa Fe General Kearney took his departure for California, leaving Colonel Doniphan in command of the troops, with orders to march against the Navajo Indians, who had failed to attend a council for making peace with the United States and had continued their depredations. After treating with these Indians and requiring security for their future conduct, Colonel Doniphan was ordered to report to General Wood. Adjutant G. W. Butler, of Colonel Doniphan’s staff, and Lieutenant Snell, of Captain Roger’s company, brother of Colonel W. T. Snell, a banker of Fulton, Missouri, died while on the expedition. Captain Rogers was so disabled that the command of the company devolved upon Lieutenant Harrison.
After the treaty with the Indians was concluded the troops took up their march toward Chihuahua. The battles of Brazito and Sacramento were fought on this march. At Brazito eight of Colonel Doniphan’s men were wounded. One of this number was W. Dooley, of Captain Roger’s company.
The battle of Sacramento was a very notable one. With less than a thousand men the Americans gained a decisive victory over more than four times their number of Mexicans. Colonel Doniphan’s loss was one killed and eleven wounded, three mortally; while the Mexicans had 320 killed, 560 wounded and seventy-two taken prisoners. J. F. Fleming, of Callaway county, was wounded in this battle. Chihuahua, the great stronghold of central Mexico, was entered on March 1, 1847, the next day after the battle of Sacramento. After holding this city for some time, Colonel Doniphan marched to join General Wood. This officer congratulated the Missouri troops in very complimentary terms, saying that no troops could point to a more brilliant career than those commanded by Colonel Doniphan. They were permitted to retain the Mexican cannon captured at Sacramento, as trophies of their victory. They reported to General Taylor at Monterey, on May 27, 1847, and there received instructions in regard to being mustered out of the service. The forces were directed to proceed to the mouth of the Rio Grande and there take water transportation for New Orleans. The men embarked for New Orleans on the 9th of June, in the sail vessel Republic, and arrived at that place on the 15th of the same month, meeting with the most cordial reception. Having been paid and discharged by the 28th of June, the soldiers departed for their homes. About 300 of them were formally received by the citizens of St. Louis, on July 2, with processions, and speeches by the Hon. Thomas H. Benton and others. Here Colonel Doniphan was crowned with a laurel wreath, the “gift of beauty to valor.”
Of the 856 men in the regiment at the outset, 120 were lost by death, discharge, transfer, etc., so that 736 men were finally mustered out of the service. Below we give a list of the officers and privates of Captain Rogers’ company, which is as full as we can make it—seven names being necessary to complete the roll. A large number of the men are dead, but we are unable to say how many:–
Officers.—Charles Rodgers*, captain; J. B. Duncan, first lieutenant; James Smith*, second lieutenant; B. F. Murray, third lieutenant; F. Letcher, first sergeant; Thomas Jameson, second sergeant; B. P. Jones, third sergeant; Phillip Blanckenburg, fourth sergeant; Thomas Harrison, first corporal; C. A. Rogers, second corporal.
Privates.—C. Harrison, B. French, W. French, A. Reed, Frank Berry, R. M. Berry, Berry Collier, J. Beeding, W. McCray, J. Oldham, E. J. Overfelt, W. Payton, A. Carter, J. Johnson, Lewis Jones, John M. Davis, W. Morris, H. Dooley, W. Dooley, Kit. Bullard, J. Adcock, J. Thompson, V. Thompson, W. Thompson, David Kern, R. Yancey, W. A. Dickinson, W. Baker, T. Baker, John Leopard*, Hall Wilkerson, J. Thorp, Glover Collins, —Andrews, J. W. Kelso, R. Steward, F. Davis, S. T. Sharp, B. Smart, M. Love, C. Wright, John Maddox, M. Trimble, W. Trimble, J. Trimble, B. F. Bailey*, J. W. Bailey, J. Harper, Levi Blount, —Owen, —Cockerell, J. Price, Odon Guitar, J. Roberts, J. F. Fleming, W. H. Northcut, R. S. Dunlap, R. J. Williamson, T. Ficklin, D. H. Overton*, Charles Hill, H. Y. C. Neal*, —Habernight, V. Davis, L. Frank, David Craig, John Ennett, John Swon, W. Bagby, U. Maddox*, J. Humphreys, T. Boles, John McClure*, H. S. Hunter, L. Derieux, Jefferson Ridgeway*, R. Glover, James George*, P. Divers, —Aylet, W. Broadwater, Elijah A. Wills, R. A. Raphael*, Thomsa L. Tureman*, U. Vanbibber, —Ryan, F. S. McKinney*.
The years of 1849 and 1850 will be remembered by the old settlers of Callaway county as the periods when the gold excitement in California reached its highest point, an as the years when the people generally throughout the American Union, as well as Callaway county, were alike smitten with the gold fever. The earliest settlers, like their descendants of to-day, soon learned that—
“Gold is the strength, the sinews of the world;
The health, the soul, the beauty most divine;”
and manifested their love and appreciation of the saffron-hued metal by separating themselves from their homes and friends, and taking up their line of march to the gold fields of California. Callaway county sent forth many of her sons—some of whom were men with gray beards, and boys still in their teens—to that far-distant region, all animated with the hope that their labors, their sacrifices and their bravery, would be rewarded with an abundance of the glittering and precious ore.
The following is in part a list of the emigrants who proposed to emigrate from this county to California in the spring of 1850. the list numbers 235 names, twenty-two of whom resided in Fulton: William Armstrong, Joseph Adcock, William Arnett, Hugh Alkinson, James Allen, John Allen, William Allen, —Bailey, Wash Bright, Alfred Bowman, Robert M. Boyd, Thomas G. Baker, John R. Burdett, James Bradley, Elkana Brooks, W. A. Bagby, James Bartley, John Bailey, George W. Bailey, B. Hall, William Hook, Dr. John H. Howard, William Hendrix, Abner Holt, Ed. Hopkins, Rufus Hisey, John Irvine, Alexander Irvine, William Jones, Robert Jones, Walter Jones, William James, William Johnson, William Johnson, Benjamin Jones, Oratio Jones, Richard Jackson, Samuel Bright, Thomas Baker, William Baker, Walter Bradley, William Bright, Thomas Bowls, —Baskins, Spephin Bowles, William Bradley, Sim Brannam, John Bellows, F. Brandon, Willis Bennett, John Bennett, T. W. Bradley, Henry C. Bradley, Burt Bradley, Robert Brown, B. Bowden, John Bowden, B. H. Brown, James Brown, Thomas Boyd, William Buckner, James Broughton, W. F. Bryant, Benjamin Baker, William T. Baker, Thomas Baker, Philip Blackenburgh, George Bradley, James Benson, William M. Baker, Jackson Benson, John Baker, I. W. Boulware, –Chiles, Alexander Cleveland, W. P. Clatterbuck, Robert Carter, S. D. Conger, Thomas Conger, E. Conger, F. Cummins, James Conger, Stephen Conger, Jr., James Coons, John Carney, Alexander Carter, John Crowson, W. L. Crowson, Peter Crow, –Callaway, Jno. R. Craighead, Isaiah W. Craighead, Lemuel Carter, David W. Craig, J. E. Cook, D. Crosswhite, J. W. Doubleday, Samuel Dyer, Thomas Davidson, James W. Davis, F. R. Davis, F. Darioux, I. Davis, Joseph Ewing, Joshua C. Ewing, James Ellis, Henry N. Ewing, J. Easton, –Foxworthy, Absalom Ferguson, John Ferguson, B. French, Thomas Farmer, George Ferrier, John Fitzhugh, Irvin Fry, Samuel Grant, William Gregory, W. H. Gilbert, Samuel Gill, J. P. Gibbs, George Gordon, T. W. Grey, Robert Glover, John Glasgow, William Glasgow, John Green, Thomas Gilmore and son, William Hume, John P. Harrison, George W. Hamilton, William Hoover, Hugh Herrymann, Green Hubbard, William Hubbard, Thomas Holland, Crockett Harrison, James Harrison, Samuel Harrison, James Kennedy, Joseph M. Key, A. Key, William Knott, E. King, W. King, F. F. Letcher, W. S. Letcher and lady, John A. Lepard, Monroe Lynes, Jefferson W. Lynes, Smith Lawson, James Lawrence, Ch. McKinney and son, John Mosely, W. L. Moore, Wharton Moore, Russell Martin, Jeremiah Muir, R. Majors, H. Majors, Jerry Miller, George Morris, Jos. Morris, James Morris, Isaac McCord, M. McIntire, Arch. McClintock, Samuel McClintock, Stephen Messick, Mathew Mason, John Mason, R. Miller, John Neill, Jeremiah N. B. Neill, Calvin Nichol, Henry Neill, Madison Nichols, Marshall Neviss, James Nichols, Ole Nelson, William B. Price, —Pogue, Captain Joseph Price, W. F. Pugh, William Payton, John V. Pemberton, John Peters, William Pauley, Walter Robinson, William Renoe, Benjamin F. Robertson, James M. Riley, William Rothwell, R. D. Rodgers, Dr. E. Rackliff, William Rodman, William Rutherford, R. Reynolds, J. Ryan, W. Reynolds, E. W. Ratekin, John Smith, Caswell Snell, Isaac D. Snedecor, William Stephens, Dr. W. E. Stephens, Boston W. Shobe, James Simpson, William Setters, R. L. Swope, James C. Scott, Samuel T. Snedecor, Benjamin Suggett, Jefferson Trimble, Samuel Trimble, Marcellus Threlkeld, Calvin Tate, James Turmans, William Smith, Benjamin Truitt, Charles Tarrh, T. J. Trimble, Ulten Underwood, W. W. Vaughan, Elijah Vansandt, W. L. Vaughan, James Whiteside, E. Worthington, John Ward, Dr. A. Wilkerson, George W. Wilkerson, Robert Wells, C. Wright, John Wilson, Jeptha Yates.
It is possible that all the parties whose names appear above did not go to California. Just how many did go, we have not been definitely informed. The following company started fro that distant region about the first of May, 1850:–
The Callaway company, en route for California, met on the plains ten miles west of St. Joseph, when they proceeded to organize by adopting a constitution and electing officers.
Major James Tate was unanimously elected president, with powers of a military captain, and A. George was unanimously elected vice-president, with powers of first lieutenant; S. G. Letcher, secretary of the company, with powers of a second lieutenant. John Harper, B. F. Trimble, Glover Collins, W. H. Wilson, Alfred Shobe, Z. C. Welbourn, J. W. Anderson, R. W. Thurman and James M. Goggin were constituted a judicial board, with powers of sergeants. Robert Dunlap, David McClure, J. W. Drisdell, J. F. Coons, Edwin Curd, J. P. Vanlear and Herman Habernicht were elected a legislative body. The following is a list of all the members present on the day of organization; but various applications were afterwards made to them, sufficient to swell the number to 100.
List of Company
Frank Trimble, E. J. Overfelt, Robert Bailey, Robert Dunlap, John Trimble, A. G. Dunlap, John Harper, A. G. Harper, Edward Snell, William Wallton, David McClure, A. W. Fisher, Andrew Harrison, J. W. Smith, B. F. Driskell, Z. C. Wilbourn, G. Page, Thomas Hickerson, J. W. Driskell, Robert Poag, R. W. Thurman, J. M. Coons, T. J. Coons, W. W. Robertson, John Smith, J. F. Coons, M. H. Collins, W. D. Collins, S. G. Collins, J. W. Anderson, A. George, Edwin Curd, J. O. Craghead, G. F. Swope, S. G. Letcher, W. H. Wilson, James Tate, T. S. Wilson, J. Foxworthy, J. P. Vanlear, J. T. Buckner, J. M. Goggin, J. S. Watkins, Thomas Goodrich, Thomas Swepstore, R. George, Givens George, John Wilson, H. Habernicht, A. Shobe, W. V. Arnold.
The following poem, written by a local poet, appeared in the Fulton Telegraph, April 1, 1850:–
Gold, precious metal, but alas!
It joy and sorrow brings—
Come read the papers as they pass,
Of California things.
The California fever here,
It rages very high;
The cause of many souls I fear,
To moan, lament and sigh!
Though some there are have fortunes made,
Through hardship, toil and pain,
While thousands of them, it is said,
Have spent their time in vain.
They move about the busy way—
From day to day they roam,
And sadly disappointed they—
They wish themselves at home.
The search of gold, what has it done?
Come tell me if you can!
Go ask the broken-hearted one,
The woman, or the man!
A sad and mournful tale you’ll hear!
Deluded souls are fled—
Fathers, sons, brothers, husbands dear,
Lie numbered with the dead!
Along those dreadful, dang’rous ways,
On every side are seen
The marks of some sad gloomy days,
That shows what there have been!
The toil and suff’ring on the way
Through which they have to go;
Ah! who can tell, or who can say,
Beset with pain and woe!
And yet they flock along space,
The golden land to see;
Not thinking what may be their case,
They move away in glee.
Now I would have them to take care-
Reflect on it in time,
A nurs’ry of disease is there,
A school of vice and crime;
Where desperate men in search of prey,
Their object to fulfil [sic]—
They lurk and watch, both night and day,
To rob, and sometimes kill.
The gambler, too (pretended friend),
Will coax and urge them on—
He’ll fleece their purse from end to end,
Till all they have is gone.
Alas! how thoughtless and how blind,
How frail we mortals are—
We leave our happy homes behind
In search of gold elsewhere.
So goes the world from time to time
In search of worldly gain—
And oft we move from clime to clime,
In sorrow, grief and pain.
That great All-wise, first cause of all,
Left free the human will—
Though bound in chains by Adam’s fall,
May choose the good from ill.
Then let the world move as it may—
Be watchful, cautious, wise,
And you will find, mark what I say,
Sweet home the golden prize.
After the emigrants arrived in California, the following letter was received by a gentleman who then resided in Fulton:–
FROM THE CALLAWAY EMIGRANTS.
“Sacramento City, August 29, 1850.
Dear sir: I should have written to you earlier announcing the safe arrival of myself and numerous fellow travelers from Callaway county, in this land of golden phantoms, but my first impressions of the country were so much at variance with all my preconceived opinions of California, that I considered it proper to wait until observation and experience had convinced me of the true state of things. Before entering upon matters immediately connected with the country I will, however, glance back at the long pathway of destruction, death, suffering and misery which leads to it across the mountains and deserts from Missouri here. My last letter to you was written at the ferry on North Platte. So far the journey had been pleasant; we were in high spirits, and little dreamed of the trials and tolls that awaited us. From thence to the South Pass we had little grass, but otherwise got on very well. We rejoiced as we began to descend along the streams which pour their waters in to the Pacific, deeming our journey half over, and the latter part the easier, as being a descent; but soon the mountain fever began its operations amongst us. At one time all but James Allen were sick, very sick for two or three days, and in two wagons from Boone county (Messrs. Black and Hubbard and Turner’s) there were four sick. I was at no time unable to administer medicine, –the disease easily yielded to prompt treatment,–and in eight or ten days all were able to assist in camp duties, though many persons lingered for weeks under it, and some died. In the meantime we traveled by moderate stages, taking the Salt Lake road at the Cut-off. At Fort Bridger Mr. West, one of our traveling companions from Nashville, Boone county, had the misfortune to discharge a pistol loaded with buck-shot against his body. The greater part of the charge was intercepted by the cap of the holster in which the pistol was, and his vest pocket and waistband of his pantaloons. Four shots penetrated through his clothes, one entering his body just below the lower rib, ranging upwards towards the right side, as the pistol had been discharged by being thrown out of the front wagon by himself pulling out a laryette, [sic] and falling upon the hounds was discharged in an upward direction. There was no physician to be called upon, and we did the best our judgments could dictate, but from the apparent course of the shot and the high fever that immediately ensued, and the intense pain he complained of, we believed he would soon die. After lying by one day, my team moved forward, also Turner’s. I remained to do what I could, and at length found a physician in a passing train who had instruments, and after examination he gave it as his opinion that the shot had glanced around the intestines and had probably lodged where it would do but little ultimate damage. He approved of the course that had been pursued, and advised us shortly to proceed on our journey and get to Salt Lake. The next day at noon the company was overtaken, the patient doing well. He then got into Mr. Hickerson’s spring hack, in which he rode with ease, and in a few weeks was walking as brisk as the balance.
The road to Salt Lake we found partly very good; grass all the way abundant, but the last eighty miles is as bad as ever was travelled [sic]. We passed through deep, narrow canons [sic], and almost every half hour crossed deep, narrow streams, with precipitous or rather perpendicular banks, over which in the States it would appear impossible to drive an empty wagon. On we went, however, without any material difficulty, or any accident occuring [sic] to our wagon, but frequently having to aid others in righting their upset wagons, and pulling out their mired horses and mules. We finally reached the great valley on the 20th of June, all in good health. A great many came by the lake to obtain a supply of provisions, but were disappointed, as none were to be had until after harvest. Some remained to wait for harvest, a few obtained fifty pounds of flour in exchange for a good horse, and others rushed on, trusting to rapid driving and charity of others to carry them through.
I intended to have given you in full the results of my inquiries and observations among the people of this secluded, rich and beautiful valley–the morals (?) politics, progress and prospects of the inhabitants of the celestial valley, but have not space now. I will endeavor to recur to it some of these days, as it may answer for copy for you first page.
Leaving Salt Lake City, we passed up the valley, northward, seventy-five miles, to Bear river; this was the fifth ferry we had to pay, besides the Platte ferry. The road and grass all this distance were splendid, Salt Lake all the time in sight, but the mass of its waters were hidden behind a high promontory. From Bear river, the road turns west amongst the low mountains–occasionally opening on the lake. Here are some rich and beautiful valleys, destined ere long to be filled with a Mormon population from Europe.
From the head of Salt Lake to Humboldt or St. Mary’s river, our progress was agreeable, though the country is very mountainous and grass in many places scarce. On the 4th of July we crossed the head waters of the Humboldt. At this point a man lay dying, who had been shot with an arrow on the 2d by the Indians, while on guard with his horses. We found the river high. Carried our plunder over on our shoulders, wading to the armpits–pulling over our wagons with ropes, and swam our stock. This was the only time we crossed the river with our wagons, the water so high that the emigrants had to form a new road entirely on the north side, making the distance nearly 100 miles farther than the river road, according to the statement of many who had travelled [sic] it before. For the first three or four days we had but little to complain of, but then the valley of the Humboldt began to prove itself to be to stock the ‘valley of the shadow of death’–a modern ‘Golgotha’ in the fullest sense, and for men to work their way down it this year with teams, required the most powerful and unremitting exertions, such as exhausted nearly the last energies of the system. All the feed that was obtained for stock had to be cut and floated over the river, and then very frequently carried from half a mile to a mile and a quarter, through sloughs and mud from knee keep to waist deep. In many places grass could not be obtained for swimming and cutting, but had to be pulled up by the roots from amongst the rushes and willows, and then washed. For two hundred miles this immense labor was to be performed every time that stock was fed. No wonder then that the loss of stock, especially horses, has been very great. The whole atmosphere, when we came along in July, was rank with fetor of dead stock–now it is much worse. The grasses along this horrible river appear to lack the ordinary nutritious qualities, and the water, diluted as one would have supposed its poisonous minerals to have been, from the overflowing fullness of the river, afflicted stock with universal diabetes that wasted them rapidly. There has this year been an almost universal shortness of provisions amongst the emigrants, caused, I presume, by the fear of general waste that occurred last year, but owing to the timely supplies sent out by the traders and the generous liberality of the citizens of Sacramento, no cases of starvation occurred that I have heard of, though many were on very short allowance while on the Humboldt, and to wade and swim that all the time to relieve the weak stock, stand guard and live on half rations, was just about as much as men could stand up to. In crossing the desert there were many individual instances of peculiar suffering, but all that I have heard of got thorough with life. Carson valley reached, and all serious difficulties were ended. Flour could be obtained at $2 a pound, pork $2.25. A good horse would purchase from ten to fifteen pounds; a common one five pounds, to those who had no money. To those who had neither money nor stock, the traders would always give enough to carry them from one station to another. For this kindness the emigrants felt grateful to the traders, but in some other matters they practised [sic] a lying deception far from being honorable. In order to purchase stock cheap they told the emigrants, even their intimate aqcuaintances, [sic] that stock was worth nothing almost, and that wagons and harness could be picked up around the commons in California; when in fact wagons are now selling for $100 to $150 and harness $30 to $50 a set. Horses and mules that have just come in bring from $30 to $80 a head. Oxen about $75 per yoke. And I have seen some of these men, whom I had known before, bring in as many wagons as they could, and these loaded with harness and other things which they had partly caused to be thrown away. As we passed up Carson valley we saw a number of persons who had been out prospecting for gold among the mountains. They had found gold in considerable quantities, but water for washing it was very scarce. They said it would not pay to remain there, but many have since gone over to join them.
As to California, the terminus of our wearisome journey, the goal of all our hopes, I scarcely know how to write about it so as to be believed. Multitudes in the States have got the idea fixed in their minds that there is no more to do but to come to California, be industrious and economical, and a fortune is certain, and the most brilliant golden tales are so emblazoned before their eyes by the press, that nothing that wears a darker shade can be apprehended or receive nay attention. The first thing that struck my attention upon entering the mining regions, was the general expression of dissatisfaction amongst the miners, and the constant travelling [sic] to and fro that I observed. I could liken it to nothing else than a vast swarm of bees that had lost their queen. Miners are seen moving at all times and in all possible directions, with their blankets and tools upon their backs, hunting for new diggings. At the same time on every stream where water can be had, men are hard at work, some making a little money, and many only making expenses, while a very, very few strike upon a rich spot and take out several hundred dollars or perhaps thousands in a few days; and these are the miners your [sic] hear tell of in the papers. The thousands who are making only their board or a little over, and who would be willing to accept of $3 a day at any kind of employment they could obtain, are never mentioned by the press of this country especially, and I observe that it is from the papers of this country that others copy most of their gold news. Wages here are very much reduced; teamsters can be hired at $50 to $75 per month, $100 is about the highest; cooks, $100, etc.
Hundreds have spent large sums of money in damming streams which have not paid one cent. A few again, especially on Feather river, have done well; but there has been no chance for the emigrants of this year to share in these rich deposits except by buying out claims generally at large prices. This few have done, or had the means to do. the chances of making money rapidly here are about over, and people here have all lowered their expectations, and brought themselves to contemplate very small amounts as being enough to go home with; thousands, I will venture to say, would go if they had enough to pay their wey. [sic] Of last years miners there are many who a few months ago, were worth from $2,000 to $5,000 are now without anything, having spent it prospecting and damming rivers.
Provisions are now abundant and comparatively cheap; flour $8 to $9; pork, $30 per barrel; sugar fifteen to twenty cents; potatoes, $7 to $9, etc.
“Most of the Callaway emigrants have arrived, generally in good health and bring their stock. Their names are too numerous for me to attempt mentioning in this already verbose epistle. Mr. Alfred George, the bearer of this, who is just starting for home, carries with him a large number of letters from emigrants to their friends
Yours etc., FULTON.
All that transpired during that memorable struggle would fill a large volume. Callaway county, as did the State of Missouri generally, suffered much. Her territory was nearly all the time occupied by either one of the other antagonistic elements, and her citizens were called upon to contribute to the support of first one side and then the other. However much we might desire to enter into the details of the war, we could not do so, as the material for such a history is not at hand. Indeed, were it even possible to present the facts as they occurred; we doubt the propriety of so doing, as we would thereby reopen the wounds which have partially been healed by the flight of time and the hopes of the future. It were better to let the passions and the deep asperities which were then engendered, and all that serves to remind us of that unhappy period, be forgotten. We have tried in vain to obtain the number and names of the men who entered the Confederate army from Callaway county. No record of them has ever been preserved, either by the officers who commanded the men, or by the Confederate government. In all, thirteen companies entered the Southern army from Callaway county, commanded by the following officers: D. H. McIntyre, I. N. Sitton, David Craig, Milton Scholl, Henry Burt, Thomas Holland, Creed Carter, George Brooks, Thomas Hamilton, Jefferson Gibbs, Robert M. Berry, Preston Wilkerson, George Law. These companies were not all full. There were, however, scores of men who left the county singly or in squads of from two to four each, and joined the Southern army further South. From the best information we can obtain, the number of men who from first to last united their fortunes with the Confederate army, might be placed somewhere between eight and eleven hundred.
The number of white men who entered the Union army from Callaway county is estimated to have been about three hundred and fifty. There were three full companies and a portion of another. The full companies were under the command of Captains William T. Snell, Henry Thomas and J. J. P. Johnson. Benjamin Sharp, who now resides at Wellsville, Montgomery county, Missouri, was captain of a company partly made up of Callaway men.
On the 29th day of July, 1862, a battle was fought at Moore’s Mill, in Callaway county. This was the only engagement that took place in the county between the Federals and Confederates. The account given below is taken from the Missouri Telegraph. There were fifty-nine Federals killed and wounded, and twenty-seven Confederates:
Since issuing our extra of the 29th ult., we have been able t obtain the following list of the loss in the battle of Moore’s Mill, seven miles northeast of this city, between Colonel Porter, of the Confederate army, and detachments of Federals under Colonel Guitar, his principal officers being Lieutenant-Colonel Shaffee and Major Clopper, of the Missouri troops, and Major Caldwell, of the Third Iowa. Our readers may rely on the following as correct:–
“Merrill’s Horse–Killed.–Sergeant Cameron, company K; Bugler Ludwigstize, company K; Private McBride, company K; Private Walters, company K; Private James Taylor, company I–five. Wounded–Lieutenant Myers, company K, several places, severe; Private Liechte, company K, in the knee, slight; Private Hoye, company K, in groin and breast, mortal; Private Vankamp, company K, in leg, severe; Private Kidner, company K, in leg, severe; Corporal Bower, company K, in leg and shoulder, severe; first Sergeant, G. Bradshaw, company I, in neck and shoulder, severe; Private J. J. Long, company I, in arm and shoulder, severe; Private N. H. Truder, company H, in arm, slight; Private E. Toyer, company H, in eye and head, severely–ten.
Third Iowa Cavalry–Killed.–James Cross, company E; B. F. Holland, company E; John Morgan, company E; Robert Parker, company G–four. Wounded–T. Johnson, company E, in thigh, slight; C. Gregory, company E, in breast, severe; M. J. Clark, company E, in groin, severe; W. F. Craven, company E, in arm and knee, slight; M. Worley, company E, in leg, slight; J. Worley, company E, in shoulder, slight; H. Morris, company E, in arm, slight; G. Cheatham, company E, in breast, severe; J. Harber, company E, in cheek and shoulder, severe; S. Shane, company G, in leg, severe; J. Burton, company G, in leg, slight; R. Watts, company G, in shoulder, severe; W. Vandyke, company G, in breast, severe; J. A. Dunham, company G, in arm, severe; C. W. Gleason, company H, in leg and foot; F. W. Campbell, company H, in shoulder, severe; S. H. Owens, company H, in the shoulder; A. C. Barker, company H–eighteen.
Louisiana Independent Red Rovers–Wounded.–G. W. Selvy, in breast, severe, (since died); L. B. McCans, in neck, mortal, (since died); A. D. Tipple, in leg and shoulder, severe; W. Ousley, in wrist, severe; W. Codey, in thigh, severe; Oscar Gilbert, in leg, severe; W. P. McCans, in face, severe; T. R. Doge, in leg, slight; George W. Moore–nine.
Parts of Companies A, B, G and F of the Ninth Missouri, Colonel Guitar–Killed.–Richard Baker, George Shultz–two. Wounded.–Bugler Gallatly, in several places, dangerous; H. Shrader, in head, severe; P. Knitzer, in head, severe; L. Snowden, mortally; J. Tudor, in leg, severe; W. A. Mason, in hip and hand, severe; H. Shultz, in thigh, slight; Fleming, in arm, severe; R. H. Breese, in head, slight; M. Dalton, in elbow, slight; E. C. Music–eleven.
The above includes the entire list of killed and wounded on the part of the Federals, except those of the Indian battery, of which we learn one was killed and two wounded. Thus, it will be seen that the entire number of killed and wounded of the Federals foots up fifty-nine. Several of those who were wounded have died since the day of the battle. The whole number of the Federals dead, up to this time, is fifteen.
The rebel loss in killed and wounded amounts to twenty-seven. Five of this number were killed outright, and one has since died. We have not been able to learn the names of all the dead and wounded of the rebels, many of the wounded refusing to give their names.
The following is as perfect a list as could be obtained: Captain Penny, of Marion county, killed by grape shot; Private J. Fowler, killed by a minie ball; C. H. Hance, of Randolph county, wounded in arm and thigh, very sever; D. P. Brown, of Boone county, wounded in head, mortally; William Gibson, of Scotland county, wounded in left shoulder, not dangerous; Thomas B. Moore, of Lincoln county, wounded in left breast, severe; James Tolson, of Boone county, wounded in leg, below the knee, severe; G. T. Joyner, of Shelbyville, Missouri, wounded in leg, severe; John McKnight, of Boone county, wounded in shoulder, severe; J. W. Splawn, of Ralls county, wounded in breast (since died); E. B. McGee, of Monroe county, wounded in head, dangerous; George D. J. Endine, of Marion county; —Tole, of Marion county; —Hamilton, of Marion county.
“We did not learn the character of the wounds of the last three, but understand they are badly wounded.
“The foregoing includes the names of all of the rebel dead and wounded that we could obtain. We regret that we cannot give the names of all their killed and wounded; and out of their entire loss (twenty-seven), we can only give the names above. We do not suppose they took any of their wounded off with them, for they had no means of carrying them, having no wagons nor ambulances. They travel without any encumbrances. Porter carries no tents, no cannon, no trains, no supplies. He and his men sleep on their blankets beneath the trees, and subsist on the supplies which they get from friend and foe on their way.
We here repeat what we said in our extra of Tuesday last–that the battle of Moore’s Mill was one of the hardest-fought and most hotly contested battles that has taken place since this Rebellion commenced, considering the numbers engaged and the circumstances by which the Union troops were surrounded.
Colonel Guitar, with 875 men and two pieces of cannon, came upon Porter, with 350 men concealed in the bushes, before he was aware of his whereabouts, our troops receiving a shower of balls from the rebels before they fired a gun. The heroic Union boys soon recovered from the shock, and were not slow in returning a deadly fire. The battle raged for two hours, when the rebels were put to flight. They left so precipitately, that if they had any baggage, supplies, or, indeed, anything but themselves and horses, it would have fallen into the hands of the Union troops.
All the troops are loud in their praise of the heroic bravery of Colonel Guitar. Indeed, all–officers and privates–did nobly and bravely.
“Porter and his men fought with desperation. The Union troops admit that the rebels showed grit and determination–that their courage and bravery were worthy a better cause.
We learned from one of the rebel wounded that Porter was deceived in regard to the number of Union troops. He had been advised, by some means, of the number that left this place on Sunday last to attack him at Brown’s Spring, but did not know that Colonel Guitar had received reinforcements. The wounded rebel said, that if Porter had known the number of Colonel Guitar’s forces, he would not have stopped for a fight–that the Union troops had given them more than they had bargained for.
Colonel Guitar left in pursuit of Porter and his rebel band early on Tuesday morning. We learn that the rebels divided into squads, and took different directions.
Porter had better skedaddle, for he has in his pursuit a brave, energetic officer, well fitted to lead the true, tried and heroic troops that are under him; and if Porter don’t get beyond kingdom come, the boys will ‘take him in.’
“There was one prisoner–Doctor William W. McFarlane, brother of Captain McFarlane, of Colonel Guitar’s regiment, taken by the Union troops on the battlefield. The rebels took no prisoners.
We hope and trust that Porter and his like will keep out of this county. The citizens, before he came, were quiet–all was quiet, and peace reigned in our midst. All classes were attending to their legitimate business. We hope, too, that we may not have to record the history of another battle in our county.
“To the people of Callaway county.–Those in command have sent me among you with instructions to see that the laws and military orders lately issued are enforced. One of these orders requires that all able-bodied men subject to military duty, that is, all between the ages of eighteen and forty-five, and all disloyal persons should enroll themselves, and the latter deliver up their arms. It is not necessary for me to allude to the means which your government has instructed me to use in order to enforce the enrollment and disarming; for I shall act upon the presumption that you will comply with the orders when the means are given you to do so. The means are now offered to you, and I ask those subject to military duty to come forward at once and enroll themselves. All disloyal persons, not subject to military duty, are also requested to enroll themselves and deliver up their arms. My headquarters are established at the Lunatic Asylum, where the enrollment will take place, and the arms received. Full protection is guaranteed to all who come and go these headquarters for the purpose of complying with the orders alluded to.
Let no consideration induce you to abstain from fulfilling your duty; for you may rest assured that the orders will be enforced.
Notice to all concerned.–If any of my soldiers or trains are fired upon, in or near a farm, I shall act upon the presumption that those living near know of such acts, and unless it shall appear that such persons have done their duty in giving information, will be held responsible in person and property for such acts.
The following is a list of names of the persons who voted for Lincoln at the election for President in Callaway county, Tuesday, November 6, 1860:–
Auxvasse township.–George Raffelesberg, John Harper, Able Fuchs, J. Schroughauser, C. Meier, J. Polzeck, A. Ladmann, Joseph Kerebischeck, John Dumalt, H. Cornell.
Cote Sans Dessein township.–G. H. Austin, William Trotter, William Smith, Samuel Miller, John D. Wood.
Were we to enter into a detailed statement of all the facts connected with the killing of the non-combatants in Callaway county, during the war, such a statement would constitute the darkest portion of this history; the darkest, because it would tell of the butchery of innocent victims, by men who were devoid of the common instincts of humanity; by men who distinguished themselves by their acts of brutality; by men whose names are immortally linked in with an infamy as odious and execrable as ever disgraced the annals of any country. But we forbear, leaving the facts to be more fully gathered by some future historian, who will write them up when there is still less of passion and less of hatred. Unfortunately, men of low, brutish instincts and ignoble aspirations are found in all wars; in fact, a war without its Kirks and Hesselriggs is something that has never yet existed even in the most civilized countries.
James Renoe was a Southern sympathizer; he was, however, a quiet inoffensive man, never thrusting his political opinions upon others who differed with him, while he never concealed his views, when called upon to express them.
During the year 1862, a company of Confederate soldiers camped near Renoe’s father’s house, and after arranging their camp on the creek, one or two men were sent to Renoe’s house, who ordered young Renoe and a negro man to take a load of corn to the camp. Renoe’s father, in accordance with an order issued by a man singing himself A. Krekel, with headquarters at the State Insane Asylum, at Fulton, requiring men to report the presence of rebels, etc., the next morning went to Fulton to report that the rebels were encamped near his residence.
The commander at Fulton had already heard of the fact, and had sent a company of soldiers to Renoe’s house. Mr. Renoe was returning home from Fulton, when he met the company of Union soldiers who had been to his house. He discovered that the men were leading one of his own horses, with a saddle on, and he further noticed as his horse passed him, that the saddle was bloody. He continued in the direction of his home, when, after proceeding a short distance, he found, to his great horror, the body of his son lying in the fence corner. He learned from parties who were working in a tobacco field, opposite to the place where the body laid, that the soldiers had shot him.
During the month of October, 1862, William R. Given and David Given, his son, and Charles Hill, were killed at the residence of the former, seven miles northwest of Fulton, under the following circumstances:–
A company of rebels had camped in the neighborhood of Given’s house, and by accident, one of the men belonging to this company had been dangerously wounded. The wounded man was taken to Given’s house by his comrades. This fact had been made known to the commander of the militia at Fulton, who had charge of about one hundred men, composed largely of Germans. This company was sent out to attack and disperse the rebels, but before this was done, the company went to Given’s house, and took William R. Given, David Given and Charles Hill prisoners, and placed them in Mr. Given’s buggy house under guard. These parties at the time of their arrest were building a school-house but a short distance from Given’s residence, and were found on the roof of the same, nailing on shingles. Hill was a Union man, but Given and his son were Southern sympathizers. After making the arrest, the company of Union men were attacked by the rebels. The guards having the prisoners in charge asked the officer in command what must be done with the prisoners. The officer answered, by telling them to shoot them, which was accordingly done. Hill was killed instantly; William R. Given lived twenty-four hours, and David forty-eight hours after they were shot. William R. Given had long since passed the meridian of life. At the time he was shot, he was on his knees praying, and praying for his slayers. He was an exemplary member of the M. E. Church South.
Among others who were murdered in cold blood by the militia were William Robinson, William Scott (the latter a boy about seventeen years of age), J. W. Smith, an old man, Colonel James Brewer, Sr., and James Brewer, Jr. (the latter a boy of seventeen), John and William Marus, and a number of others whose names we did not get. Men were killed upon both sides. The bushwhacker seemed at times to be no less a savage than the militia, and murdered and robbed with equal avidity and cruelty.
This harvest of death was something like the bloody assizes, memorable in English history and inaugurated by Jeffreys after the defeat and capture of Monmouth and Argyle. These American Jeffreys, like their infamous prototype across the sea, left some of their victims dangling in mid-air, where they hung until their bodies were devoured by the beasts and birds of prey–no one daring to give them even the semblance of a decent burial. The difference, if any, between the English Tyrant and the American butchers seems to have been in favor of the former, as he went through the farce of a trail before taking the blood of his victims, while the latter shot them down like dogs wherever they could be found, without trial, judge or jury.
“God knows who was right,
Ah! Yes it is true,
And the God of the Gray
Is the God of the Blue;
He bore their proud spirits
To mansions above,
And He crowned them at last
With His garlands of love.
“The grasses grow green
On the graves where they lay,
The flowers bloom alike,
O’er the Blue and the Gray;
And the loved one’s tears
Are mingled with dew,
While with it God blesses
The Gray and the Blue.
“In Heaven above us
God opens his gate,
No strife or contention,
No discord, no hate;
The portals are open,
And there side by side
Stand the heroes of battle–
The heroes who died.
“God welcomes them all;
Though in battle array
One bore the bright Blue,
And the other the Gray.
Though one for Union,
The other for State,
One angel of Mercy
Guided all to God’s gate.
“And there at the right hand
Of Him who is just,
Away from the mortal
And up from the dust,
There, there by God’s throne
Far away from earth’s grave,
In raiments unspotted,
Stand the true and the brave.
“Shall we, the frail worldings,
Who yet live and wait–
Shall we sit in judgment,
Or cry out in hate,
While a Father above us,
A Father all wise,
Calls back His loved children
From earth to the skies?
“Forgive us, forgive us,
Dear Father above!
Bring back to our conscience
The heart beat of love;
And while we are weeping
For our loved ones to day
Let us tenderly cherish
The Blue and the Gray.”